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PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS – Introduction, Dobereiner’s Triads

 


INTRODUCTION

Till 18th centuries, only 30 elements were known. By the year 1865, 63 elements were discovered. Till date , 118 elements have been discovered and many more may be known in future.


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CHEMISTRY –

MATTER / ATOMS AND MOLECULES / STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM / CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS / ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS / METALS AND NON-METALS CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS / PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS


Need of classification

It is practically difficult to learn properties and uses of each element separately. So, attempts
have made for systematic study of such large elements with ease. The basis of Classification is
similarities in properties.


BIOLOGY –  

CELL – THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE / TISSUES  – LIFE – SIMPLE AND COMPLEX / DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISMS – LIFE AROUND YOU / WHY DO WE FALL ILL – HIGHWAY TO HEALTH / 

IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES – QUALITY FOOD,QUALITY LIFE / LIFE PROCESSES – LIFE’S INTERNAL SECRETS / CONTROL AND COORDINATION – THE REGULATORS OF LIFE / HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE? – THE LIFE CYCLE / HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION – MAPPING OUR GENES


Earlier attempts

♦  Grouping as metals and non-metals.

♦  Table of relative atomic weights given by Dalton


Dobereiner’s Triads

J.M. Dobereiner was first to classify elements into some groups having sets of three elements each, called triads. He recognized the relation between atomic mass and their properties.

When elements were arranged in the order of increasing atomic masses and similar properties, the relative atomic mass of the middle element in each triad was close to the average of the relative atomic masses of the other two elements.         

                                            Triad I                      Triad II                        Triad III
Element                    Li     Na     K               Cl      Br       I                 Ca       Sr        Ba

Atomic mass   –       6.9     23     39          35.5    79.9    126.9          40.1     87.6     137.3

Average at. mass   
of 1st and 3rd               6.9 + 39 / 2                  35.5 + 126.9 / 2             40.1 + 137.3 / 2
elements of a triad

 

 

 

 

 

 

♦ Dobereiner made the first observation on platinum as catalyst.


Demerits of the Dobereiner’s Triads

  1. A large number of  elements having similar properties could not be grouped into triads.      

Example – N, P and As  have similar properties but the average of atomic masses of N and As is not
equal to the atomic mass of P.

Elements  –            N                    P                      As

 Atomic mass  –    14                    31                    74.9
Average atomic mass of N and As  =   14 + 74.9 /2   =  44.45 (not equal to the at. mass of P  i.e. 31)

  1. It was possible that quite dissimilar elements could be grouped into a triad.
  2. Dobereiner’s Triads had limited use as only three triads could be arranged.
    Although Dobereiner’s Triads was not found to be very useful, even the only advantage of Dobereiner’s research was that it encouraged other chemists to correlate the properties of elements with their atomic masses.

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NEWLANDS’ LAW OF OCTAVES   


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