- Between 1968-1978, a major improvement occurred in Indian agriculture and animal husbandry. It was veritable revolutions that are known as the Green Revolution and White revolution.
- On the basis of seasons, crops have been classified as –
(a) Kharif crops – These are the crops grown during the rainy season from June to October. Examples – paddy, soyabean, maize, pigeon pea, green gram, black gram, cotton etc.
(b) Rabi crops – These are the crops grown during winter season from November to April.
Examples – wheat, gram, peas, mustard, linseed etc.
- Crop yield can be improved by three main activities. They are –
(A) Crop variety improvement
(B) Crop production improvement
(C) Crop protection management
- Crop variety improvement is done by selecting good varieties of crops that can give a good yield. It is done by two methods – hybridisation and genetically modified crops (GMO’s).
- Crop production improvement includes –
(a) Nutrient management (b) Irrigation (c)) Cropping patterns
- There are sixteen chemical elements/ nutrients which are known to be important to a plant’s growth and survival.
- The Non-Mineral Nutrients are hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and carbon (C). The remaining thirteen nutrients are obtained from the soil and are called Mineral Nutrients.
- The mineral nutrients are further divided into two groups – macronutrients and micronutrients.
(i) Macronutrients – Macronutrients are those elements which are required in large (macro) quantities. Out of thirteen, macronutrients are six in number. They are phosphorus(P),
potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg).
(ii) Micronutrients – Micronutrients are those elements which are needed in only very small (micro) quantities. Micronutrients are seven in number. They are iron (Fe), manganese, boron, zinc, copper, chlorine and molybdenum.
- Manure is a organic material that is used to fertilize land. It is a well decomposed refuse from the stable and barn yards including both animal excreta and straw or other litter.
- Fertilizers are chemical substances made commercially. They supply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and helps to increase crop yield.
- Organic farming is a system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives etc) and relies on crop rotation, green manure, compost, biological pest control, and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity, and control pests, and to become environment friendly.
- Mixed Cropping is the growing of two or more than two crops at the same time in the same field.
- Growing of different crops in the same field in succession, is called crop rotation.
- Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture which deals with breeding, feeding, disease control and care of domestic animals(such as cattle, hogs, sheep, horses etc.); includes housing and nutrition. Animal farming includes cattle, sheep, goat, poultry and fish farming.
- The breeding, hatching, feeding, fattening and rearing of fish on a large scale under controlled conditions is called fish farming or pisciculture. The place where fish is reared on a large scale is known as nursery or hatchery.
- The science of raising, rearing and care of bees for their honey and wax is called apiculture.
Green Revolution and White revolution