Créer une présentation
Télécharger la présentation

Télécharger la présentation
## CHAPTER NINE Capital Market Theory

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

**Cleary / Jones**Investments: Analysis and Management CHAPTER NINE Capital Market Theory**Learning Objectives**• To explain capital market theory and the Capital Asset Pricing Model • To discuss the importance and composition of the market portfolio • To describe two important relationships in CAPM as represented by the capital market line and the security market line**Learning Objectives**• To describe how betas are estimated and how beta is used • To discuss the Arbitrage Pricing Theory as an alternative to the Capital Asset Pricing Model**Capital Asset Pricing Model**• Focus on the equilibrium relationship between the risk and expected return on risky assets • Builds on Markowitz portfolio theory • Each investor is assumed to diversify his or her portfolio according to the Markowitz model**All investors:**Use the same information to generate an efficient frontier Have the same one-period time horizon Can borrow or lend money at the risk-free rate of return No transaction costs, no personal income taxes, no inflation No single investor can affect the price of a stock Capital markets are in equilibrium CAPM Assumptions**Market Portfolio**• Most important implication of the CAPM • All investors hold the same optimal portfolio of risky assets • The optimal portfolio is at the highest point of tangency between RF and the efficient frontier • The portfolio of all risky assets is the optimal risky portfolio • Called the market portfolio**Characteristics of the Market Portfolio**• All risky assets must be in portfolio, so it is completely diversified • Contains only systematic risk • All securities included in proportion to their market value • Unobservable, but proxied by TSE 300 • In theory, should contain all risky assets worldwide**Capital Market Line**• Line from RF to L is capital market line (CML) • x = risk premium = E(RM) - RF • y = risk = M • Slope = x/y = [E(RM) - RF]/M • y-intercept = RF L M E(RM) x RF y M Risk**Capital Market Line**• Slope of the CML is the market price of risk for efficient portfolios, or the equilibrium price of risk in the market • Relationship between risk and expected return for portfolio P (Equation for CML):**Security Market Line**• CML Equation only applies to markets in equilibrium and efficient portfolios • The Security Market Line depicts the tradeoff between risk and expected return for individual securities • Under CAPM, all investors hold the market portfolio • How does an individual security contribute to the risk of the market portfolio?**Security Market Line**• Equation for expected return for an individual stock similar to CML Equation**Security Market Line**• Beta = 1.0 implies as risky as market • Securities A and B are more risky than the market • Beta > 1.0 • Security C is less risky than the market • Beta < 1.0 SML E(R) A E(RM) B C RF 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 BetaM**Security Market Line**• Beta measures systematic risk • Measures relative risk compared to the market portfolio of all stocks • Volatility different than market • All securities should lie on the SML • The expected return on the security should be only that return needed to compensate for systematic risk**CAPM’s Expected Return-Beta Relationship**• Required rate of return on an asset (ki) is composed of • risk-free rate (RF) • risk premium (i [ E(RM) - RF ]) • Market risk premium adjusted for specific security ki = RF +i [ E(RM) - RF ] • The greater the systematic risk, the greater the required return**Estimating the SML**• Treasury Bill rate used to estimate RF • Expected market return unobservable • Estimated using past market returns and taking an expected value • Estimating individual security betas difficult • Only company-specific factor in CAPM • Requires asset-specific forecast**Estimating Beta**• Market model • Relates the return on each stock to the return on the market, assuming a linear relationship Ri =i +i RM +ei • Characteristic line • Line fit to total returns for a security relative to total returns for the market index**How Accurate Are Beta Estimates?**• Betas change with a company’s situation • Not stationary over time • Estimating a future beta • May differ from the historical beta • RM represents the total of all marketable assets in the economy • Approximated with a stock market index • Approximates return on all common stocks**How Accurate Are Beta Estimates?**• No one correct number of observations and time periods for calculating beta • The regression calculations of the true and from the characteristic line are subject to estimation error • Portfolio betas more reliable than individual security betas**Arbitrage Pricing Theory**• Based on the Law of One Price • Two otherwise identical assets cannot sell at different prices • Equilibrium prices adjust to eliminate all arbitrage opportunities • Unlike CAPM, APT does not assume • single-period investment horizon, absence of personal taxes, riskless borrowing or lending, mean-variance decisions**Factors**• APT assumes returns generated by a factor model • Factor Characteristics • Each risk must have a pervasive influence on stock returns • Risk factors must influence expected return and have nonzero prices • Risk factors must be unpredictable to the market**APT Model**• Most important are the deviations of the factors from their expected values • The expected return-risk relationship for the APT can be described as: E(Ri) =RF +bi1 (risk premium for factor 1) +bi2 (risk premium for factor 2) +… +bin (risk premium for factor n)**Problems with APT**• Factors are not well specified ex ante • To implement the APT model, the factors that account for the differences among security returns are required • CAPM identifies market portfolio as single factor • Neither CAPM or APT has been proven superior • Both rely on unobservable expectations